Why Do I Write So Much About History?

Statue of Edmund Burke in Washington DC. See i...

Edmund Burke Image via Wikipedia

[Yesterday we ran one of Jessica’s older posts and today we’re going to represent one of mine, not (entirely) because I’m lazy but, because they have kept their relevance, and we have new readers since they were published. If you visit here often (or even seldomly) you’ve likely noticed that I write a lot about history. This is why. This was originally published in October of 2011, if you remember it, I’m extremely pleased, if not, I hope it speaks to you as well.]

Firstly: Because I like it.

History is one of my personal favorite things, especially military history and the history of technology (which tend to be all mixed up in each other anyway).

Secondly: Because the world we live in was built on the shoulders of giants.

Men like Archimedes and Aristotle, men like Henry V and Stephan Langton, men like Marlborough and Wolfe (and Montcalm), men like John Paul Jones and Nelson, men like Washington and Jefferson, men like Adam Smith and Edmund Burke. Men like Frederick Douglass and John Calhoun, men like John Bunyan and Henry Ward Beecher, men like Lincoln and Jefferson Davis, men like Carnegie and Edison, men like Alexander Graham Bell and Steve Jobs. And don’t forget the comparable (and incomparable) women like Susan B. Anthony, Clara Barton, and Abigail Adams who also belong on this list. Without the likes of these people we would still be living in mud huts hunting and gathering our dinner.

Thirdly: If we study how our ancestors solved problems, we give ourselves a head start on solving ours.

While I don’t believe history repeats itself, exactly; but as Mark Twain told us, it surely rhymes. One of the major distinguishing marks of Homo Sapiens is our ability to use external memory; to write things down to help us remember. This is true whether we are memorializing a hunt on a cave wall in France or what I did today on my iPhone. This forms a the basis for a lot of the decisions we make. ” If it isn’t broke, don’t fix it”.

Fourthly: Why specifically military and technology?

Because I believe that the individual has much to do with the progress of the human race (for good or ill). The military has several things to offer: It was the very first organization going all the way back to stone age hunting parties, it also preserves our traditions better than we as civilians do, for instance: Do you know why three volleys are fired at a military funeral, it’s not arbitrary, there’s a reason that almost any soldier can tell you. This helps us in uncertain times to build on the past to chart where we want to go in the future. It also has always been the laboratory for leadership.

What technology offers is this: the intelligently lazy man. The guy who got tired of packing his gear who watched a rock roll down the hill and went on to invent the wheel.

OK, I got all that but, I’m an American, what’s with so much English history?

As Americans our history is all mixed up in English history, until 1776 we were English. Our heritage and respect for the individual comes down to us from the Anglo-Saxon Britain, was codified in Magna Charta, reaffirmed in the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution and it’s Bill of Rights which preceded ours. Our philosophers of government were English (or Scottish). The American Dream is founded on English freeman’s rights and obligations.

For that matter our thought processes throughout American history have almost always paralleled the English. Differences? Sure, but rarely on the basics. And now we have been allied for nearly a century. I’m with Churchill here when he said: I’m content to see our countries get more and more mixed up in each others affairs. Great Britain in the European Union is, I think, by the way, an abomination. They belong firmly in an association of the Anglosphere. Never has there been such an accumulation of power based on the individual free man, and that is not Europe’s tradition.

When England won control of the sea between 1588 and 1805, she became the final arbiter of global power, and she used it for mostly good purposes, such as outlawing the slave trade and fostering world trade, generally. When Great Britain essentially went broke during World War I, that mantle passed to the United States. This was as Adam Smith had foreseen in The Wealth of Nations in 1776, as he urged the British government to secure a deal with the North American colonists. They didn’t but, it’s worked out fairly well even so.

Finally, a lot of what I do here is what I was taught in 8th Grade history, that we have forgotten or that our schools no longer teach. The men (and women) who preceded us were smart thinking, observant men. Why wouldn’t we want their input on how to rule ourselves?

The Lean Submariner  put up a post which is exactly on point. If there is one thing we have learned over the millennia it is that paying Danegeld is no good. Whether it’s to keep the Danes out of England, or US trade secure. I agree completely with Captain Bainbridge who wrote to a friend:

“The Dey of Algiers, soon after my arrival, made a demand that the United States’ Ship, George Washington, should carry an Ambassador to Constantinople with presents … Every effort was made by me to evade this demand but it availed nothing. The light in which the chief of this regency looks upon the people of the United States may be inferred by his style of expression. He remarked to me. “You pay me tribute, by which you become my slaves;I have therefore a right to order you as I may think proper.” The unpleasant situation in which I am placed must convince you that I have no alternative left but compliance, or a renewal of hostilities against our commerce. The loss of the frigate and the fear of slavery for myself and crew were the least circumstances to be apprehended, but I know our valuable commerce in these seas would fall a sacrifice to the corsairs of this power of this power, as we have no cruisers to protect it…

I hope I may never again be sent to Algiers with tribute unless I am authorized to deliver it from the mouth of our cannon…”

I recommend that you read his entire post, entitled “Bullies Redux“. If you’ve ever doubted the value of military strength, and the will to use it, you will learn the perils of weakness. Would that our so-called leadership would read and heed article like this.

This is an example of building on our knowledge base, whether it is Alfred the Great’s experience or Captain Bainbridge’s. This is how the human race makes progress.

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Lions, Bulldogs, and Men with Umbrellas

English: Barack Obama Deutsch: Barack Obama

English: Barack Obama Deutsch: Barack Obama (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Steven Hayward talked this morning on the Power Line blog about Uhlmann’s Razor which he defines as “When stupidity is a sufficient explanation, there’s no need to have recourse to any other.” He was talking about 404care, but it’s at least as valid in foreign affairs and defense.

We’re hearing lots of stories about the administration’s disdain for and attempts to demoralize the military, you know the forced leadership retirements, and a bunch of other stories, including the one about the navy jack patch. Do we really think that Obama, who appears to live to be either making a speech, or on the golf course is really laying awake at night, dreaming up ways to hurt the military?

Obama hasn’t shown me any particular brilliance, of course I might have blinked, but as a Nebraskan I do know a bit more about SECDEF Hagel, common Nebraska opinion is that it would not take a large bag of hammers to be wiser than he is. Let’s try, while easily admitting these fools are driven by ideology, to remember they are not the smartest people in Washington D.C., let alone the universe.

Mostly what we see is what we would see in any organization if it was being run by a group of people who have no conception of leadership, stewardship, or any business sense. Let alone a smidgen of knowledge of how to plan a two car funeral.

That said, one of the areas where they are doing actual damage to the country is in foreign policy. Their weakness has been noted by every one in the world and they are acting accordingly. I don’t really see a way to fix it til 2017 but it is happening.

What we and the world are getting is a preview of what is going to happen if America leaves the stage as the leader of the free world. The last time a similar thing happened was after World War I when Britain was exhausted and America didn’t understand yet that we were the heir. It led to trouble, you’ll recall.

Along that line, Bill Whittle has something to say about that period as compared to ours as well.

Take Heed.

A Snake in the Stubble


A center pivot system

Back in the day, I spent some years as a pivot tech. It was pretty interesting, there’s more technology in there than I would have guessed. It’s also a good way to get your exercise when you consider that the average machine is a quarter-mile long.  The dealer I worked for sold between 50 and 100 machines each year and they all had to be installed along with whatever options the customer had bought. That can range from a pressure switch to being able to control the entire machine from his iPhone, so it did have its moments.

But a lot of the time it was merely the pressure to get them hooked up. We rarely built the machines, contractors did, there just wasn’t time. We usually built one or two a year just to keep our hand in, but between wiring, and repairs, and even grain handling equipment we usually had other ways to spend our time.

We had one year where whoever the contractor had doing wiring, had a habit of nicking the wires at the motor. These machine use a specific style of cable, which has a corrugated metal shield, to help protect from lightning, and they are rather difficult to strip. And if you were careless, you would nick the insulation on the individual wires, most likely you wouldn’t notice it either. And he didn’t. And when we went over these machines at first start, before we turned them over to the customer, we didn’t either.


A center pivot control panel

But eventually, a nicked wire will burn off, stopping the motor. And, of course, it has to do with starting and stopping as well as running time. So the motor the furthest out, which works harder burned off first. Yay! By the time this started it was the middle of July, the corn was head high, and it was 90°+ and usually the pivot had been running so the local humidity (and mud) were plenty high. It’s an easy fix, usually though, restrip and reconnect the wire, although occasionally you’ll have to replace a motor. The hard part is walking anywhere up to half mile through the cornfield to do so. Fun days. So the next year we decided to wire our own machines.

Which was fine, of course it was, I was one of the people who pushed for that decision. But that also meant quite a lot of work for us to do. At every tower there are 30 wires to be connected plus odds and end, and some other stuff at the pivot point. When you’re rolling along, it takes about 15 minutes per tower, and with me it was mostly helper work, while I did the ends of the underground, panel options, and pivot point. When I had a helper, of course, which wasn’t always.

Anyway, one day we were doing this, on the way into the field, I had dropped my helper at the end tower, and he was working his way in, while I worked the pivot point, this one had a generator so it was somewhat quicker to wire, and I was doing the collector ring, which is that dome-shaped device on top, which allows the machine to go around in continuous circles, without tearing out its wiring.

I’m moving along when I hear this excited shout. I look around, and my helper is about four spans out, and dancing like a crazy man. So I get down to the ground and in my pickup, turn around and go bouncing down there, as fast as I can. That means about 30 miles an hour across a ridge tilled field. In a ridge tilled field, the ridges are anywhere from 18 to 24 inches high and 30 inches apart. It’s not a comfortable ride, slowly, let alone at 30 miles an hour, even with a pickup that weighs something over 9000 pounds.

A ridge tilled field

A ridge tilled field

Of course, I figure he’s managed to hurt himself, although the way he was dancing around, I was pretty sure he hadn’t fallen off the tower, which is the easiest way to get hurt. But, he hadn’t. When I slide to a stop, he runs around the back of the truck and grabs a shovel. He then proceeds to very energetically hack at the ground. By the time I get out, he’s pulverized about 3 square feet, and running out of breath. So I ask him what all the excitement is, cause I haven’t a clue.

He tells me that he finished wiring the tower box, and was coming down to do the motor, when he jumped off the base beam, (that’s the horizontal tube that holds the tower and the wheels). It’s a fair jump, many machines, like this one have 38″ tires, which puts that beam at about mid-thigh. When he hits the ground, something by his foot got his attention. Yeah I would say it did, it takes a fair amount of volume to attract the attention of someone doing something about 1100 feet away, even in a quiet field. But, he managed to make me think something was seriously wrong at that distance.

So, I clamped one hand on the steering wheel, and one on the cab roof to try to keep from getting a concussion as I flew across the field, so that I could watch him turn a 30 inch or so rattlesnake, into hamburger.

He had landed about three inches from its head, and what attracted his attention was its irritated rattling. But it paid for its irritation with progress…

with its life

Why Pope Francis is wrong about capitalism | The Daily Caller

English: Watt's steam engine at the lobby of t...

English: Watt’s steam engine at the lobby of the Higher Technical School of Industrial Engineering of Madrid (part of the UPM). es:user:Ecemaml took it from Enciclopedia Libre Español: Máquina de vapor situada en el vestíbulo de la Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales de la UPM (Madrid) Obtenida de la Enciclopedia Libre (Photo credit: Wikipedia)


OK, first things first, I get the impression in the comments from the Daily Caller that there is some controversy over the translation, I don’t speak the language so I can be fooled.


In any case, this is a good concise, and cogent article on why capitalism is the appropriate economic system for Christians. There is a big caveat that I didn’t think the author hit hard enough, and that is when we talk of capitalism, we are talking about free market capitalismnot crony-capitalism or any of the other perversions we see these days. Whenever the government intervenes in a market, it distorts that market. In certain cases it may be worth it because of the purpose of government, it is justified, but for things like social welfare it is a very inefficient, and sluggish system.


This is by  Rod Martin the CEO, The Martin Organization, writing in the Daily Caller.


Last week, Pope Francis gave his first major speech on economics. In it, he demanded more government control over the economy, decried the gap between the rich and poor, and called on the world’s leaders to end “the tyranny of money.”

We should all be concerned about the plight of the poor. Unfortunately, the pope’s comments miss the mark in several key ways.

1. Nothing in human history has done as much to alleviate human poverty as free-market capitalism. This shouldn’t even be a controversial statement. Before the Industrial Revolution, the entire world lived in far worse poverty than the pope’s slum-dwelling parishioners in (socialist) Argentina did when he was the archbishop of Buenos Aires. Moreover, humans had lived in that level of extreme poverty since at least Noah’s flood.

Were there redistribution schemes in ancient Rome, ancient Egypt, and ancient China? Of course, and they are well documented. Did they lift anyone out of primitivism? No, they did not.

To give just one example of how capitalism reduces suffering: Capitalism has eliminated famine from most of the world. The steps by which it did this were not obvious, and were entirely profit-driven. Someone invented a steam engine. Someone figured out how to attach steam engines to boats and trains. Some other people put up their hard-earned capital to invest in building boats and trains. Someone else thought of using new technology to can food. Someone built warehouses. None of this was done for charity. But one day there was a famine, and so someone shipped trainloads of canned goods to the starving people. It took the genius of the market to conquer want.

We can tell similar stories about everything from polio to tooth brushes. But the bottom line is, well, the bottom line. The poorest in capitalist countries live better — in all the ways that count most — than kings did just a century or two ago. Though rare even in the early 20th century, indoor plumbing is now almost universal in much of the world, and there are more cell phones than toilets. African children living in huts take courses on iPhones. The poorest illegal alien can walk into any emergency room in America — before Obamacare — and be treated with state-of-the-art equipment no one could have paid for just five years ago, for free.

Socialism produced none of this. Indeed, socialism feeds off the wealth and ingenuity of others. The pope should not rail against what free markets haven’t yet done without first thanking God for what they have done.

2. Capitalism is the societal fulfillment of the Golden Rule. For those who missed Sunday school, Jesus taught people to “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.” No economic system realizes this principle as thoroughly as capitalism.

Read more: http://dailycaller.com/2013/05/23/why-pope-francis-is-wrong-about-capitalism/#ixzz2UqI8WHT2


Here is the takeaway, other than the valid things government does, which extends not much beyond defense, especially on the Federal level, very little is done by the government that couldn’t be done far better by private enterprise or traditional charities.



Education; part 2

One-room school building in Jefferson, Colorado

One-room school building in Jefferson, Colorado (Photo credit: Wikipedia)


[This article follows from the two yesterday Education’s Great Divide and Too Big to Fail, you’ll get more out of them if you read them all]


Yesterday we looked at a report of what is being taught, and it was fairly uncomfortable wasn’t it. So let’s have a look at what we’ve done historically in education.


In the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, Congress set aside section number 16 of each township (which is six miles square) for the purpose of education. That’s 640 acres which would have sold for about $1.25 an acre (in gold) or a total of $800.00, if sold, some was, some was rented out, and there were other schemes as well, some probably dishonest. But still, that’s a pretty good endowment, which could easily have been self-sustaining. This is what built those one room schoolhouses all over the country, complete with McGuffey Readers. That is the basis of education in what once was, by a considerable margin, the most literate country on earth. What happened?


For about a hundred years, not much. Those one room schoolhouses with their stern schoolmarms went on turning out literate people who could read, add, subtract, fix what broke, and build the United States. It was an outstanding achievement, as well as a testament to hard work performed under adverse conditions. The brightest, like say Abraham Lincoln, went on to be lawyers, doctors, preachers, and businessmen, if you were smart, there was nearly always a way to go to college, and you learned the timeless morals and virtues at home and in school, as well as usually in church.


Let’s talk about the results of that system for a minute. It’s real simple, really.


Look at America in 1800, mostly subsistence farming, with some mercantile activity, and overseas trade, mostly in handicrafts, carried in sailing ships.


Now look at America in say 1914, the leading industrial power in the world, more automobiles than the rest of the world, the world leader in technology, agriculture, industrial arts, by far the best transportation and communication systems in the world.


Quite a difference in 115 years isn’t it? Mostly done by men (and some women) with an 8th grade or less education. At 14 Thomas Edison was a candy butcher on the Michigan Central Railroad. Andrew Carnegie started as a telegrapher on the Pennsylvania Railroad. Henry Ford hated the hard work of the farm. And on, and on, and on. People who had some basic skills, an inquiring mind, and the determination to live better than their parents.


What’s different today? Not much really, in the real world. If you want to be an electrician (ignoring the government interventions for the moment) what do you need. This would be a good start.


  1. Read simple English, what I would call 4th grade level roughly

  2. Do simple arithmetic

  3. A willingness to work

  4. A willingness to learn

  5. Honesty


If you’ve got those five traits, give a guy like me a month, and I can have you ready to wire a house. Wiring houses is not going to make you rich but, if you continue learning, and are working for the right company, you can go quite a way. My last few years in the field, I mostly did computerized control systems, in industry that will pay you something like $50 an hour, which you should be able to live on. Officially, you’ve still got a fourth grade education.


If you’ve got more to offer, you can go farther but, the most important thing on that list is honesty. I, and people like me, will not tolerate thieves and liars. Will you make mistakes? Of course you will. We all do, everyday. Only the dead don’t make mistakes.


We desperately need to get over this notion that everybody needs to go to college, most don’t. Do you really think all these people churning out of, say Podunk School of Law, are better lawyers than Abe Lincoln, who had about a fourth grade education and apprenticed himself to ‘read law’? If I need a two-way radio, I can go out to the shop and build it, granted it won’t be an iPhone but it will work. Technology too often has become a crutch, we’re trying to substitute it for knowledge, and that’s one reason why we aren’t innovating like we used to.


The other thing we need to do is to get education out of the maw of big government and big unions. They could care less about educating your kids, their interest is their bureaucracies and power. They always will work hand in hand to have more money, prestige and power, because it is in their rational self-interest to do so. The other problem with unions, especially big ones, is that they will always protect the incompetent, at least as long as they pay dues.


Historically, in this country, the schools were a township responsibility, in the sixties they began to consolidate. (They told us they needed more students to justify the underfoot, in the modern age.) There was some point to it but, it was the camel’s nose under the tent, and soon we had the state and then the federal government mandating all sorts of things that had very little relevance to real education.


You see, the thing about township control is that everything is local, and at its best it’s a three-way struggle between the (traditionally) property taxpayers, the teachers and/or administrators, and the parents. Everybody gets something, nobody get everything they want. But the parents and the taxpayers who are usually fairly close to the same are in charge, not some bureaucrat from Washington, who has never even seen the situation.


What is exactly the point of giving the schools umpteen thousand dollars per student, if they are not learning anything, which is often the case. It would be wiser to not spend the money. One almost has to assume that parents want the best for their children (it’s up to us to design a system that makes that mean that they are productive, educated citizens, which we’ll talk about soon). Parents are the only proper advocates for the kids in school, and the township model gives them far more involvement, as it does the people who pay for it all, the taxpayers. Teachers and administrators are employees and as such, if they can’t meet the standards imposed by their employers, (taxpayers and parents) they need to be replaced. Obviously, the expectations have to be somewhat realistic but I can’t imagine anybody expects 1st graders to be rocket scientists.


What we are doing now is nothing more than throwing more and more money into a system that doesn’t work, and that everybody knows doesn’t work. What was that definition of insanity, again?


How do we get back to a rational system? Let’s talk about it in comments.



Stories from the Field

English: Center Pivot on the dessert

English: Center Pivot on the dessert (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Back 15 years ago or so, I spent something over 4 years working with center pivots, those ¼ to ½ mile long sprinklers that make this part of the country look like green circles when you folks fly over. They’re pretty interesting machines technically, in how we make then run straight and not wrap them up around themselves, not wash out the road, and stuff like that.

By the time I was working on them, many were controlled by computers in those pretty blue and red panels, and after I learned what I was doing, that’s mostly what I worked on, of course you know I’m technical like that, and I’m also old enough to know that carrying a 142 lb. gear box and a jack and this and that a half-mile through a 12 foot high cornfield in 100° heat is not gonna be a whole lot of fun. So, I managed to avoid having a helper and mostly did controls.

Don’t want to lose three rows of corn to having a road (trail really) to the pivot point? I can make that happen. Want to just start and stop it? Want to control the speed? Want to turn the pump on and off? Those are easy. Want it to call you at home if it stops? How about call you on the radio? Those are easy too, although a bit more expensive. In fact, I was on the development team for some of those, testing beta models for the manufacturer. Now let’s have some fun, want to control everything about all your pivots? I’ve been able to set that up for you since your computer ran DOS 3.4

Want to run your pivots from your iPhone? There’s an app for that too. Thing is I’m one of the people who can make this stuff work on nearly any machine, some of them I can also adapt to run your bin site. You know, the one we set up last year so that you could drive up and dump your semi and the system will put 14% moisture corn in the bin (or bins).

That the kind of stuff I did. But like everybody else in the spring, I did almost nothing but new pivots, I could wire each tower in about 10 minutes (when things were going right, anyway) plus about half a day for tying in the power feed and making the pump control work and miscellany, including teaching you how to use it. And telling it how many seconds out of a minute the last tower had to run to put an inch of water on the field, setting the end gun and such.

Those days would run 12 -18 hours Monday through Friday and about six on Saturday, if you were lucky. So you tend to be tired at the end of the day. And we covered a radius of about a hundred miles. Officially that is, I started one machine darned near in South Dakota, another in Kansas, and a third in Colorado. I can remember one night when I was starting three machines we had built in another dealers territory when I nearly ran head on into a competitors truck about 9 at night on a S curve in a gravel road- he was starting a machine they had sold in our territory. Why? Who knows, maybe they didn’t like the dealer.

Strangely, and coincidentally, that same night as I got into town hoping I’d be in time to get some dinner, the lug nuts sheared on one of my wheels as I was turning into the bar/cafe (it also had some of the best food in the county, and the coffee wasn’t bad either). I said, well you can imagine what I said, the truck was out of the way so I went in to eat. I figured I’d call my wife to come get me and deal with it in the morning. So happened that a tech I knew from a competitor was having dinner and offered me a ride home, which saved my wife about 100 miles on her car. He dropped me off at our dealership, and I got in my car and went home.

One of the strange things at this company was that you could drive your truck home if you lived in town otherwise you were supposed to leave the truck at the shop. I had long since told them that if it was the same distance home as to the shop, I was going home, and the service manager agreed readily enough.

So I get in about 7 the next morning and tell my story and he says OK, the underground crew is out that way on a two day job so they can load it up and bring it in tonight. I had had enough sense to bring some of my tools so I didn’t need anything off it so I got my jobs planned and loaded a truck that wasn’t scheduled.

Instead of my Dodge/Cummins, this silly thing was one of those 90 or so Ford diesel/5speed combinations that needed to be going downhill  to get started, and in addition it could only fuel at one pump in the county because whoever designed the fuel system on it’s flatbed screwed up and you needed to be 10º nose down to fuel it, nice part was that it filled both tanks. So off I go.

That day was fine, actually fairly easy. The next day was a bear though, I finished up about 10 that night (by my headlights) and started the 80 mile drive home. I can either turn right and go to the shop or go straight ahead and go home. It wasn’t a hard decision.

So, I’m crossing the Union Pacific main line which is the busiest railroad in the world, and I decide to upshift, with this truck you did a lot of shifting, and it was sloppy as well. so I’m shifting from first to second in the middle of the crossing when the fool truck decides it would be a good time to be in both second and reverse at the same time. That didn’t work out well, I stopped, rather abruptly. So, I’m sitting there trying to get it into one or the other, when I look down the tracks and about a mile away is a train. Well that was a bit of a motivator, so I push jerk harder on the gearshift, and finally get it into second (only). Ever see a 8500 pound pickup play drag racer? You would have that night. I quickly grab the transfer case and shove it into low lock because I know I’ll kill the engine if I try to start in second. Off we go, the breeze from the locomotive wasn’t too bad, must have missed by a couple of feet.

So, I drive around the section, because the transmission is still stuck, but at least in only one gear now. While I’m doing this I decide I’ll take it to the shop so I don’t have to deal with it in the morning, which I do.

I go in the next morning slightly angry still, and tell the service manager about the damned transmission and where it happened. he says OK, doesn’t matter, yours is fixed. So about a half hour later, he stops me on my way out of the parking lot to ask me how I got it home last night. I’m very pleased and surprised to tell you he is still alive because when I told him that I shifted in 4 low to start and then back to two wheel drive and drove slow, he couldn’t understand that with the hubs out it was only in 2 wheel drive, nor did he understand just how slow I drove (about 20 mph was redline on that truck). Wow that made it a 19 hour day plus commute.

He didn’t understand why I looked at him and told him to go ask the mechanic how it worked and get the [censored] out of my way either.

Good thing they needed me that year.

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